Noise Management Scheme (1999)
The text of the Airport's 1999 Noise Management Scheme
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This page contains the text of the Airports latest Noise Management Scheme. This was agreed with the local planning authority in April 1999. There is also a link to the LBN report* about the new scheme which includes a useful summary of its provisions.
LONDON CITY AIRPORT
NEW NOISE MANAGEMENT SCHEME
Appendix A: Para.7.7 Of Section 106
London City Airport has adopted an extensive Noise Management Scheme for several years, the Scheme was formally approved for use in May 1993 by the local planning authority. The Airport also has an approved engine ground running scheme for test and maintenance of Aircraft. During the recent processing of the application to increase the number of allowed air transport movements at the Airport, it was agreed to further enhance the Scheme. The formal requirements of the New Scheme are delineated in the Section 106 of July 1998, in particular in section 7.7, see Appendix A.
This document delineates the proposed new Noise Management Scheme. It was prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Section 106, and formal approval is now sought from the London Borough of Newham prior to its implementation. A separate approval will be sought for any APU usage for satisfaction of Section 106 commitment 7.7.4, see Appendix A.
N.B. Various terms are used in this document, these are defined in Appendix B.
The Noise Management Scheme will be operated, as required by the Section 106 Agreement, in order to minimise noise disturbance from aircraft using the Airport and is required to include:
(a) the combined monitoring of noise and track-keeping in order to identify any deviations from the standard routes that should be followed by aircraft using the Airport and to verify the noise contours.
(b) a system of incentives and penalties which shall include financial penalties (but not in the case of track-keeping infringements) as well as operational penalties in order to:
(i) minimise noise disturbance from aircraft using the Airport including any aircraft overhaul facility
(ii) ensure that track-keeping is maintained by aircraft using the Airport
(iii) control maximum noise levels of aircraft using the Airport.
(c) the minimising of noise disturbance arising from the operation of any aircraft overhaul facility or from aircraft at the Approved Ground Running Location or generally from any aircraft ground noise source subject to the requirement to ensure the safe operation of aircraft at all times.
(d) regular meetings and consultation with the Airport Consultative Committee and such other statutory body or bodies as may be reasonably nominated by the Council, and provision to the Local Authority of all relevant information indicating the efficacy of the Noise Management Scheme.
2. DETAILS OF NOISE MANAGEMENT SCHEME
The Noise Management Scheme includes provision and use of specialised equipment to measure noise of aircraft at LCY and to determine the flight tracks used by aircraft serving the Airport. The Scheme includes the systems of analysis of the measured information and its reporting. The Scheme is delineated below under general headings, starting with the measures to maintain the responsible operating culture in order to minimise noise and achieve good track keeping by airlines operating from the Airport.
2.1 Noise Regime
By the monitoring of aircraft noise and the effective implementation of this scheme, the maintenance of the responsible operating culture which has been achieved in which aircraft operators and air-crew conduct flight and ground operations in a considerate manner most likely to reduce noise disturbance (subject always to the safe operation of their aircraft). By the application of such a culture the Airport and the operators using the Airport will be able to achieve the best operating advantage possible under the planning consent while mitigating disturbance to local people. The specific measures which will ensure the appropriate attitude continues, shall include:
(i) Airport Awareness:
The Airport will designate a specific member of their staff to manage the environmental issues of the Airport, and specific responsibility will be taken to attend to noise and track keeping issues, and liaise with the local community and the local authority.
(N.B. In the past, the Airport has carried out this role by use of external consultants and various members of staff. To ensure an integrated approach, it is now decided to bring the tasks together and have them performed by the Airport's own Environmental Officer.)
(ii) Operators' Awareness:
All aircraft operators granted permission to operate into London City Airport must undertake to instruct their personnel and, in particular, air-crew of the special nature of the Airport and to insist that they should conduct all operations in a manner which will create the least disturbance from aircraft noise. This relates to adherence to flight tracks, operational procedures on approach and departure, and ground operations at LCY. If requested by the Airport, operators will be required to provide evidence that all personnel have been so instructed. In the past, LCY have arranged internal seminars with pilots and the plane manufacturers to resolve the quietest departure operations. LCY are re-establishing an Air Safety Committee where pilots will meet regularly to discuss optimum flying arrangements.
(iii) Noise Monitoring System:
The Airport is required by its planning consent to operate a continuous permanent four-point noise monitoring system which records all aircraft movements (noise events). The four-point system is comprised of gateway pairs of noise monitors set at either end of the runway at approximately 2,000 metres from the start of roll. See Appendix B for outline description of noise monitoring system. The information so obtained shall be used to advise airlines of their performance and the need to alter their operational procedures, if that becomes appropriate. This noise monitoring system has operated since 1992 and annual reviews have been held with the local authorities. The equipment has operated continuously during the period, and this has been recently upgraded by installation of more modern computer facilities. The software is now to be further improved and an on-line terminal will be provided in a location in a building designated by the London Borough of Newham.
(iv) Track Keeping System:
The Airport will install a flight track keeping system which will allow real time inspection and recording of aircraft movements in the Airport vicinity. This will allow deviations from the departure and arrival paths at the Airport both in elevation and plan to be determined. The information so obtained shall be used to advise airlines of their performance and the need to alter their operational procedures, if that becomes appropriate. The method by which the airlines will be involved is outlined in Section 2.2 (iv) below. The information will also assist in checking the assumptions over aircraft flight profiles, dispersion around flight tracks used in provision of the annual Airport noise contours. Appendix C provides background information on the details of the proposed track keeping system. An on-line terminal will be provided in a location in a building designated by the London Borough of Newham which will allow radar track keeping information to be independently studied.
(v) Combined Noise and Track Keeping
The new software will be such that the noise monitoring system and the track keeping system discussed in sections (iii) and (iv) above will work as a combined noise and track keeping system. The system will enable the noise levels of individual aircraft and the tracks followed by that aircraft to be scrutinised.
2.2 Noise Management
The planning consent lays down the rules, so far as noise is concerned, within which the Airport must operate. This Noise Management Scheme is in place to encourage operators to be mindful at all times of mitigating noise creation whether or not the total regime is close to the planning limits.
2.2.1 Planning Condition Noise Controls
The Airport has stringent controls over the types of aircraft that can operate, the number that can operate, and the hours of operation.
The Airport is required to provide information to the local planning authority as required by its planning permission. The specific measures which are required are repeated here, as attending to them forms an essential part of the overall noise control at London City Airport.
(i) Condition 10
This Condition prescribes the hours in which ground running of aeroplane engines for testing or maintenance purposes can be carried out, it also requires that such ground running shall be carried out
"(i) in such locations and with such orientations of the aircraft as may be agreed in writing with the Local Planning Authority and
(ii) employing such noise protection measures as may be agreed in writing with the Local Planning Authority."
Both of these matters have already been resolved and it is therefore proposed to continue operations as already approved. This agreement formed the basis of paragraph 6.1.2 of the Section 106 Agreement.
Also, it is required annually on 31 May to submit to the Council
(a) written details (in accordance with the format set out in Part 2 of the Sixth Schedule of the Section 106) of Ground Running that has taken place during the preceding calendar year (the year to run from 1 April to 31 March each year for this purpose) including details of the number, duration and power settings of ground runs and the types of aircraft involved and written measurements and calculations to show whether the Ground Running Noise Limit has been exceeded during the preceding calendar year.
Appendix D notes the method of calculation for the annual assessment with regard to the Ground Running Noise Limit.
(ii) Condition 12
This Condition prescribes the limits on the departure noise of individual aircraft types at London City Airport, the need to classify them into categories A, B, C, D and E, and to prepare an annual airborne aircraft noise contour. The Noise Monitoring System provides the detailed noise information on the departure noise levels of the aircraft operating at London City Airport. In light of Condition 12, London City Airport will
(i) Continue to operate the four point noise monitoring system.
(ii) With respect to provisional categorisation for new aircraft types, the Airport shall carry out monitored flight trials of the particular aircraft types. It is here proposed that these shall consist of monitoring normal operations of such aircraft until at least 100 departures have been so monitored. When that adequate data is available, provisional categorisation shall be sought from the Local Planning Authority.
(iii) With respect to the annual review of 31 March of the provisional categorisation of approved aircraft using the Airport, the review shall be submitted to the Local Planning Authority by 31 May each year. For approved aircraft types, the review shall relate to the measured Mean Annual Departure Noise Levels determined by the LCY Noise Monitoring System during the annual period 1 April to 31 March. Where provisional categorisation has only recently been obtained, i.e. in the period 1 January to 31 March of the year in question, then the provisional categorisation shall only be reviewed on 31 March on the following year
(iv) The annual review, as in past years, shall include submission of a detailed report which shall include the following information:
Brief status review of Noise Monitoring System
Data on dB(A) to PNdB Correction Factors
Data on NCP to NMP Correction Factors
Data on Mean Annual Departure Noise Levels
Data on number of air transport movements and number of factored air transport movements
Advice on any changes in noise categorisation.
A further item which shall be submitted with this information which is additional to that submitted in previous years is:
Data on Mean Standard Annual Departure Noise Levels (this is defined in section 2.2.2 (i).)
(v) On 31 May of each year at the same time as the annual review of the provisional categorisation, the Airport will submit to the Local Planning Authority an 57 dB LAeq,16h average mode contour for the forthcoming summer, based on the available draft summer schedule. The contour shall be produced in accordance with the methods adopted by the Civil Aviation Authority and published in DORA 9023 or any publication modifying or extending DORA 9023.
The above actions arising from the planning conditions introduce stringent overall noise control of operations at the Airport by limiting aircraft usage to the quieter air transport aircraft types, liming the total number of movements, limiting the combined effect of the number and type of aircraft flown (the annual factored movement limit) and reviewing on an annual basis based on actual performance the suitability of aircraft to continue to operate at LCY. It also limits the noise arising from ground runs of aircraft arising from testing and maintenance. However, to further ensure control of noise and track keeping, the Airport will operate the extra noise controls of the Noise Management Scheme.
2.2.2 Extra Noise Controls: Section 106
In the Section 106, further measures are included to mitigate noise impact, these include provision of sound proofing to homes and schools, as well as detailed technical controls, as delineated below.
The Airport will, by use of its Noise Monitoring System and by its observation of aircraft operations, effect the management of noise emissions in the manner set out below:
(i) Departure Noise:
By using the data from the Noise Monitoring System, the departure noise levels will be identified for each type of aircraft using the Airport. The Noise Monitoring System includes a gateway pair of microphones at each end of the runway. The mean Individual Departure Noise Level is the average of the corrected measured results from the pair of microphones at the end of the runway over which a particular aircraft departed. The departure levels are corrected to take into account the fact that three of the microphones could not be located at the correct location, i.e. 300m sideline 2000m from start of roll.
It is the aim of the Airport to control particularly noisy departures. Experience has shown that the variance in the noise level of departing aircraft is related mainly to take-off weight and weather conditions. It is not practical to control these factors, and therefore, there will be some variance in departure noise levels which cannot be controlled. However, beyond this it is intended to control excessive noise generated by flying procedures.
In order to control these, the mean Individual Departure Noise Level of each departing aircraft will be compared with the mean noise level for the particular aircraft. Specifically, the mean Individual Departure Noise Level of a departure shall be compared with the mean standard annual departure noise level to establish a "noisy" departure, and to establish a "quiet" departure.
Where an individual departure by an aircraft produces a mean Individual Departure Noise Level 5dB* greater than the mean standard annual departure noise level for the aircraft type a noisy departure classification will be given.
Where an individual departure by an aircraft produces a mean Individual Departure Noise Level 5dB* less than the mean standard annual departure noise level for the aircraft type a quiet departure classification will be given.
* The value of 5dB will be subject to review after the first year of operation. The number of departures which gave rise to a "noisy" or a "quiet" classification will be considered, and the value of the deviation from the mean standard annual departure noise level which is to be used for the following year will be subject to review.
The mean standard annual departure noise level for an aircraft shall, for the first year of operation be the value given in the previous Annual Categorisation Report for that aircraft type. That shall have been obtained by arithmetically averaging all the departure noise level values obtained at the gateway pair monitors relevant to each departure during the previous twelve months. For subsequent years of operation, the mean standard annual categorisation noise level for an aircraft shall be the arithmetical average of all the departure noise level values obtained at the gateway pair monitors relevant to each departure during the previous 12 months except those values for departures for which a noisy or a quiet classification was given.
When a noisy departure classification has been given the Airport will write to the airline operator of the particular departing aircraft, and seek an explanation. If no explanation is given that justifies the individual noisy departure, then a penalty point shall be established against the operations of that airline. This shall be called a Penalty.
When a quiet departure classification has been given the Airport will write to the airline operator of the particular departing aircraft. If no explanation is given that justifies the individual quiet departure, a credit point shall be awarded to the operators of that airline. This shall be called a Credit.
On a three monthly basis, the Airport shall report to the Local Authority the number of penalty and credit points established with respect to each airline's operations. Also , where an airline has received a greater number of penalty points than credit points, a financial penalty shall be raised.
The Airport will carry out from time to time a review of the detailed operation of the system, in order to ensure that an equitable and effective system of noise management is in place. Such review will include discussions with the Airlines and the London Borough of Newham. It shall include obtaining agreement from the London Borough of Newham to any modifications to the system prior to their use.
(ii) Landing Noise:
The Airport requires that every operator of aircraft adopt approach procedures which will produce the least noise disturbance compatible with safe operation and, where applicable, such procedures should follow any promulgated noise abatement routing for the Airport. Where aircraft manufacturers have established special procedures for the purposes of reducing noise, these should be applied to operations at London City Airport, subject always to the safe operation of the aircraft.
The use of reverse thrust on the landing roll should be kept to the minimum required for the necessary deceleration of the aircraft. Pilots who are observed using reverse thrust without the clear need to do so, shall be required to submit a report to the Airport, explaining the reasons for its use. Such use, where there was no clear need for its use, shall be deemed excessive.
Where such use of such reverse thrust is found to be without justification, the operator will for each such occasion be advised that a penalty point has been established. Such penalty points shall be added to those arising from "noisy" departures, when the three monthly review mentioned in the previous section is carried out.
(iii) Ground Noise:
The Airport requires that every operator of aircraft adopt the operating practice which generates the least amount of noise from aircraft taxiing or holding on stand, at the runway, and prior to take off. This should involve the minimum power settings necessary and, in the case of propeller aircraft, pitch settings should as far as possible be those which produce the least propeller noise.
Auxiliary Power Units (A.P.U.)
The Airport will ensure that fixed ground power supplies are available at the aircraft stands on the apron and take all reasonable steps to ensure where their use can avoid use of auxiliary power units (A.P.U.) that they are used.
(N.B. Auxiliary power units of aircraft will have to be used in certain operational circumstances, and separate approval will be sought from the London Borough of Newham to seek prior approval for such use per aircraft type (Section 106 7.7.4). This application will include manufacturer's information where necessary.)
The Airport will determine the current level of A.P.U. usage per aircraft type and set a target, against which progress can be monitored, for the future A.P.U. usage. The purpose being to ensure progress is made towards minimum usage.
Engine Running Apron (Non Test & Maintenance)
The Airport will take all reasonable steps to minimise the duration of aircraft engine running for aircraft arriving and departing from LCY's apron. With the airline's co-operation, the necessary engine running durations on arrival, and prior to departure, shall be determined for each aircraft type.
Against these agreed durations, the Airport will monitor actual apron usage, and where excessive engine running occurs seek explanations from the airline concerned and action to ensure non repetition of the long duration engine run.
(N.B. Engine running on taxiway or on the runway is a function of air traffic control matters about which neither the airlines or the Airport has any role. The aircraft, once cleared for take-off, would always seek to complete its departure as quickly as possible and so reduce the engine running duration. Only if delayed by air traffic control would extended engine running occur.)
Ground Running of Engines for Test and Maintenance:
The running of aircraft engines is permitted only during the approved operating times for the Airport. Any running of engines outside these operating times will render the Airport in breach of its approval and is strictly prohibited.
The running of engines at high power settings for the purposes of test and maintenance must be limited to the minimum periods possible, as the Airport is effectively constrained to a limitation of 12.5 minutes per day, as an average, calculated monthly. Aircraft operators wishing to carry out high power engine runs must obtain approval of the duty air traffic controller or the Airport duty officer when ATC is not operational. All high powered engine runs must take place in the location promulgated for this purpose. The time, reason and duration of all engine runs will be recorded.
As mentioned above, it is necessary under the requirements of planning condition 10 for such runs to be carried out at the agreed location, and so limited in duration to avoid exceedance of the Ground Running Limit.
(iv) Track Keeping:
By using the data from the LCY Track Keeping System, the mean track and the dispersion both in plan and height around the departure and arrival tracks shall be determined.
After the first three months, the mean tracks shall be compared for each aircraft type with the published Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) and Standard Arrival Routes (STARs) information and where significant divergence is identified, if any, the Airport shall with the operators take steps to improve mean track keeping. If it is found that the reason for such mean divergence relates to specific difficulty with operations on that route, consideration shall be given to altering the published route to ensure it is easily flyable. Such alteration, if any become required, would have to involve dialogue with the Civil Aviation Authority but would also involve detailed dialogue with the Local Planning Authority.
Having resolved the suitability of the mean tracks, the Airport will establish from the measured data over the first six months of operations, the typical dispersion around the tracks. This shall be compared with similar data from other UK Airports with radar track keeping systems to establish whether the dispersion at LCY is typical of UK operations. If it is found to be worse that the typical at other Airports, then the Airport shall with the operators take steps to reduce the dispersion around the tracks.
When this work is complete, the Airport in dialogue with the operators shall establish the typical spread of aircraft paths around the LCY tracks.
Against the agreed basis for mean tracks and dispersion about the tracks, the Airport can then operate the equipment to identify those flights which fly outside the agreed situation. When so identified, the Airport shall request the pilot in command of the flight in question to report to the Airport setting out any reasons for the exceptional divergence from the agreed track dispersion situation.
Where no operational or safety related reason is available for such an exceptional divergence, the Airline will be notified that a penalty point has been established. Such penalty points shall be added to those arising from operations classified as "noisy" when the three monthly review mentioned above is carried out. These "noisy" operations shall relate either to "excessive use of reverse thrust" for arrivals and for where a noisy classification was given for a departure.
(v) Aircraft Overhaul Facility:
There is currently no aircraft overhaul facility at the Airport, and therefore no detail of any related noise management scheme can be here offered for approval by the local planning authority. If and when such a facility is implemented, an addendum to this Noise Management Scheme will be issued for approval.
2.3 Reporting Procedure
01 London City Airport Consultative Committee
The Airport has undertaken to continue to service the Airport Consultative Committee. It also has agreed to report on effectively a three month basis, the results of the Noise Monitoring system, any complaints received, and a regular update on the level of activity at the Airport.
In light of the new Noise Management Scheme, it is proposed that it will in the future report details of the annual noise contouring, the radar track keeping studies, and the initiatives taken to mitigate ground operation noise. Table 1 illustrates the projected reporting sequence.
02 Local Planning Authority
Table 1 illustrates the projected reporting sequence.
Para 7.7 of Section 106 Agreement: July 1998
7.7 Noise Management Scheme
Stratfield and LCA covenant jointly and severally with the Council as follows:
7.7.1 To continue to operate the existing noise management scheme as provided in the 1990 Agreement as varied by the 1993 Agreement until the Noise Management Scheme as defined in this Agreement has been installed and put into operation
7.7.2 To submit the Noise Management Scheme to the Council for its approval within three months of the date of the Planning Permission and to commence implementation of the Noise Management Scheme within one month of such approval having been given by the Council following consultation with the Airport Consultative Committee
7.7.3 To install the equipment for the combined noise monitoring and track keeping system to be provided as part of the Noise Management Scheme within a period of nine months from the date of the approval by the Council of the Noise Management Scheme and to ensure that the equipment for the combined noise monitoring and track keeping system is properly, maintained at all times
7.7.4 To ensure that fixed power supplies are used at the Airport for the starting of aircraft engines and that auxiliary power units are not to be used at the Airport unless their use is demonstrated to the Council to be operationally necessary and unless the Council have given their prior approval in writing to such use
7.7.5 To incorporate a ground engine running scheme in respect of routine daily aircraft operations (separate from Ground Running) into the Noise Management Scheme to be submitted to the Council for its approval as provided in Clause 7.7.2 including the measures to be taken to persuade the operators of aircraft at the Airport to comply with such ground engine running scheme in order to mitigate as far as practicable the emissions from aircraft engines
7.7.6 To include a system of incentives and/or penalties as part of the Noise Management Scheme to be submitted to the Council for its approval as provided in Clause 7.7.2 and to implement such system within a period of nine months from the date of the approval of the Noise Management Scheme and to operate such system continuously thereafter at their own expense
7.7.7 To hold regular meetings and/or discussions with the Council the Airport Consultative Committee and such other statutory, bodies as may be reasonably nominated by the ouncil in order to review the operation of the Noise Management Scheme and to submit reports of the operation of the Noise Management Scheme to not less than two meetings per year of the Airport Consultative Committee
7.7.8 To maintain good and sufficient records at all times of the numbers and types of aircraft that in any one day either take off or land at the Airport and all such records shall be available for inspection at all reasonable hours by persons authorised by the Council who have been notified to and approved by Stratfield and LCA in writing
Airport: Proposed New Noise Monitoring Scheme
An independent Consultative Committee established by London City Airport pursuant to Section 35 of the Civil Aviation Act 1982
Page last modified: 27th July 2007